Rabu, 30 Juni 2010

LEARNING MODELS


Debate Method

Debate is one method of learning a very important method to improve students' academic abilities. Teaching materials are selected and compiled into a package of pros and cons. Students are divided into several groups and each group consisted of four people. In the group, students (two men take a position pro and two others in a position counterproductive) to debate on the topic assigned. Report each group involving both pro and con positions given to teachers.
Furthermore, teachers can evaluate each student on the mastery of material that includes both the position and evaluate how effectively the students involved in debate procedures.
Basically, that all successful models of cooperative learning as expected, each model must involve teaching materials that allow students to assist and support each other when they learn the material and work interdependence (interdependence) to complete the task. Social skills required in business should be considered important to collaborate in the success of completing the task group. These skills can be taught to the students and the role students can be determined to facilitate the group process. These roles may vary according to task, for example, the role of recorder (recorder), maker conclusions (summarizer), regulator of materials (materials manager), or the facilitator and the role of teachers can be as monitors the learning process.


Role Playing Method

Method Role Playing is a way of mastering the lesson materials through the development of students' imagination and appreciation. Developing students' imagination and appreciation made by portrayed as living or inanimate figures. This game is generally carried out more than one person, it depends on what is played. Role Playing excess methods:
Involving all students can participate have the opportunity to advance its ability to cooperate.
1. Students are free to take decisions and express themselves in their entirety.
2. The game is an invention that is easy and can be used in different situations and time.
3. Teachers can evaluate each student understanding through observation at the time doing the game.
4. The game is a fun learning experience for children.

Problem Solving Methods (Problem Solving)

Method of solving problems (problem solving) is the use of methods in learning activities with the road train students to face various problems either personal or individual problem or group problems to be solved alone or jointly.
Orientation is the investigation and discovery learning which is basically solving the problem.
The benefits of problem solving methods as follows:
1. Train students to design an invention.
2. Think and act creatively.
3. Solve their problems realistically
4. Identify and conduct investigations.
5. Interpret and evaluate the results of observations.
6. Stimulating the development progress of the students thinking to solve problems appropriately.
7. Can make school education more relevant to life, especially the world of work.
Weaknesses problem solving methods as follows:
1. Some subject matter is very difficult to apply this method. For example the limited laboratory equipment made it difficult to see and observe the students and finally to conclude the event or concept.
2. Require a longer time allocation compared with other learning methods.

Problem Based Learning

Problem-Based Instruction (PBI) focus on the problems of life that is meaningful for students, the role of the teacher presents a problem, ask questions and to facilitate the investigation and dialogue.
Steps:
1. Teacher explains the purpose of learning. Explaining the logistics required. Motivating students engage in problem solving activities selected.
2. Teachers help students learn to define and organize tasks related to the problem (set of topics, tasks, schedules, etc..)
3. Teachers encourage students to collect appropriate information, conduct experiments to obtain an explanation and problem solving, data collection, hypothesis, problem-solving.
4. Teachers help students to plan and prepare appropriate work such as reports and help them share the duties with his friend.
5. Teachers help students to do reflection or evaluation of their investigation and the processes they use.
Pros:
1. Students involved in learning activities so that knowledge really well absorbed.
2. Trained to be able to cooperate with other students.
3. Can be obtained from various sources.
Disadvantages:
1. For students who are lazy goal of these methods can not be achieved.
2. Requires much time and money.
3. Not all subjects can be applied with this method


Cooperative Script

Script is a method of cooperative learning where students work in pairs and verbally summarize the parts of the materials studied.
Steps:
1. Teacher divides students to pairs.
2. Teachers share the discourse / materials for each student to read and create a summary.
3. Teachers and students who first set acted as a speaker and who acts as a listener.
4. The speaker read out a summary as complete as possible, by entering the main ideas in summary. While the audience listened to / correct / show the main ideas that are lacking and help remember / memorize the main ideas by connecting the previous material or with other material.
5. Exchanging the roles, initially as a listener and the speaker exchanged vice versa, and do as above.
6. Conclusion teacher.
7. Closing.
Pros:
• Trained hearing, the precision / accuracy.
• Each student has a role.
• Train other people's mistakes revealed by the tongue.
Disadvantages:
• Only used for certain subjects
• Only two people do (not involving the entire class so that the correction is only limited to two people).

Picture and Picture

Picture and Picture is a learning method that uses pictures and paired / sorted into a logical sequence.
Steps:
1. Teachers convey competence to be achieved.
2. Presenting the material as a medium of instruction.
3. Teacher shows / show images associated with the material.
4. Teachers pointed to / call the students in turn set / sort the pictures into a logical sequence.
5. Teacher asks reasons / rationale for the image sequence.
6. Of the reason / sequence image of teachers start instilling concepts / materials in accordance with the competencies to be achieved.
7. Conclusion / summary.
Wellness:
1. Teachers know more about the ability of each student.
2. Trained to think logically and systematically.
Disadvantages: It took a lot of time. Many students who are passive.

Numbered Heads Together

Numbered Heads Together is a method of learning where every student is given a number and then created a group and then randomly call a number of student teachers.
Steps:
1. Students are divided into groups, each student in each group gets a number.
2. Teacher gives each task and working groups.
3. Groups discuss the correct answer and make sure each member of the group can do it.
4. Teachers call one number with the number of students who are called to report the results of their cooperation.
5. The response from another friend, then pointed to a number of other teachers.
6. Conclusion.
Pros:
• Each student to be ready all.
• Able to conduct discussions with seriously.
• Students who are good to teach students who are less intelligent.
Weaknesses:
• Likelihood that number is called, called again by the teacher.
• Not all members of the group called by the teacher

Methods of Investigation Group (Group Investigation)

The investigation methods are often viewed as a method group of the most complex and most difficult to implement in a cooperative learning. This method involves students from the planning, both in determining the topic and how to learn through investigation. This method requires students to have good skills in communicating and in group process skills (group process skills). Teachers who use the method of investigation of the group generally divides the class into several groups of five to six students with heterogeneous characteristics. Distribution groups can also be based on pleasure friends or common interests of a particular topic. The students choose the topic you want to learn, follow-depth investigation of the various subtopics that have been selected, then prepare and present a report to the class as a whole. The description about the steps the group investigation method can be expressed as follows:
a. Selection of topics
Students choose different subtopics within a general problem that is usually described in advance by the teacher. The students then organized into groups oriented to the task (task-oriented groups), which consists of two to six people. Composition of heterogeneous groups in both sexes, ethnic and academic ability.
b. Cooperation plan
Students and teachers plan a variety of specific learning procedures, tasks and general objectives that are consistent with a variety of topics and subtopics that have been selected from step a) above.
c. Implementation
Students implementing a plan that was formulated in step b). Learning must involve various activities and skills with a wide variation and encourage students to use various sources contained both inside and outside of school. Teachers continually follow the progress of each group and provide assistance if needed.
d. Analysis and synthesis
Students analyze and synthesize a variety of information obtained in step c) and plan to be summarized in an interesting presentation to the class.
e. Presentation of final results
All groups presents an interesting presentation of various topics that have been studied in order that all students in each class involved and reach a broad perspective on the topic. The presentation was arranged by teacher groups.
f. Evaluation
Teachers and students to evaluate the contribution of each group against the working class as a whole. Evaluation could include for each student as an individual or group, or both.

Jigsaw Method

Basically, in this model the teacher divides a large unit of information into smaller components. Furthermore, teachers divide students into cooperative learning groups consisting of four students so that each member is responsible for mastery of each component / subtopics are assigned the best teachers. Students from each group which is responsible for the same subtopic again form a group consisting of consisting of two or three people.
These students worked together to complete the task their cooperative in: a) learn and become experts in the subtopic thereof; b) planning how to teach subtopic parts to members of the original group. After that, students are returning to their respective groups as "experts" in subtopics and teach important information in these subtopics to friends. Another subtopic is also an expert in similar acts. So that all students are responsible for showing his mastery of the material that was assigned by the teacher. Thus, every student must master a topic in the group as a whole.

Methods Team Games Tournament (TGT)

TGT model of cooperative learning is one type or model of cooperative learning are easy to implement, involving the activities of all students without any distinction of status, involving the role of students as peer tutors and contain elements of the game and reinforcement.
Learning activities with games designed in the TGT model of cooperative learning allows students to learn to relax in addition to foster responsibility, cooperation, healthy competition and the involvement of learning.
Ada5 major component in the main component in the IGT, namely:
1. Class presentation
In the early learning teachers convey the material in class presentation, usually done by direct teaching or with lectures, discussions led by teachers. At the time of presentation of this class students should really pay attention and understand the material presented teachers, because it will help students work better when the working group and at the game because the score of the game will determine the score of the group.
2. Group (team)
Groups usually consist of four to five students who are members of heterogeneous views of academic achievement, gender and race or ethnicity. The function of the group is to further explore the material with friends groups and more specifically to prepare group members to work properly and optimally at the time of the game.
3. Games
Game consists of questions designed to test students' knowledge gained from classroom presentation and study groups. Most games consisted of simple questions numbered. Students select a numbered card and try to answer questions in accordance with that number. Students who correctly answer that question will get a score. This score for students who later collected the weekly tournament.
4. Tournament
Tournament usually done on weekends or on each unit after teachers conduct class presentations and group have been working on the worksheet. The first tournament of teachers divide students into multiple table tournaments. The three highest student achievement grouped in table I, three more students at the table II and beyond.
5. To benefit the team (group award)
The teacher then announced the winning group, each team will receive a gift certificate or if the average score to meet the prescribed criteria. Team got the nickname "Super Team" if the average score of 45 or more, the "Great Team" when the average reached 40-45 and "Good Team" when the average is 30-40


Model Student Teams - Achievement divisions (STAD)

Students are grouped in heterogeneous and students who are good at explaining other members to understand.
Steps:
1. Form a group whose members are four people in a heterogeneous (mixed by achievement, gender, ethnicity, etc..).
2. The teacher presents the lesson.
3. Teacher gives task group to work by members of the group. Members who know to explain to other members until all members of the group understands.
4. Teachers give quizzes / questions to all students. At the time of answering the quiz can not help each other.
5. Give an evaluation.
6. Closing.
Pros:
1. All students become better prepared.
2. Good cooperation with the train.
Disadvantages:
1. The group members all have difficulties.
2. Differentiating students.

Examples Non-Examples  Model

Examples Non-Examples are learning method using examples. Examples can be from the case / images relevant to the KD.
Steps:
1. Teachers prepare the drawings in accordance with the purpose of learning.
2. Teachers put a picture on the board or running through the OHP.
3. Teachers give guidance and provide opportunities for students to observe / analyze the images.
4. Through discussion groups 2-3 students, the discussion of image analysis are recorded on paper.
5. Each group was given the opportunity to read the results of the discussion.
6. Starting from the comments / results of student discussions, teachers began to explain the material to the purpose to be achieved.
7. Conclusion.
Wellness:
1. Students are more critical in analyzing the images.
2. Students learn the application of materials such as sample images.
3. Students are given the opportunity to express their opinion.
Disadvantages:
1. Not all material can be presented in the form of images.
2. Take a long time.

Lesson Study Model

Lesson Study is a method in Japan called  Jugyokenkyuu. The term lesson study itself was created by Makoto Yoshida.
Lesson Study is a process in developing the professionalism of teachers in Japan by way of investigating / testing their teaching practices to become more effective.
As for the steps are as follows:
1. A number of teachers working in a group. This cooperation includes:
a. Planning.
b. Teaching practice.
c. Observation.
d. Reflection / criticism towards learning.
2. One of the teachers in the group doing the planning stages of making a thorough lesson plans with the basics that support the theory.
3. Teachers who have made a lesson plan on (2) then the real classroom teaching. Means phase implemented teaching practices.
4. Other teachers in the group studied the learning process while matching the lesson plan that has been created. Passed mean observation phase.
5. All teachers in the group included teachers who had taught and then together to discuss their observations of learning that has taken place. This stage is a stage of reflection. In this phase, also discussed the improvement measures for the next learning.
6. Results in (5) further implemented in the classroom / learning back to the next and so on (2).
The excess of the lesson study method as follows:
- Can be applied in every field from art, language, to math and sports and at all grade levels.
- Can be implemented inter / cross school.


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